“EASTHAVEN” NAMED BY DR. SAMUEL E. SMITH.
On August 3, 1883, the site for the Eastern Indiana Hospital was selected and purchased two miles west of the City of Richmond. This tract consisted of 160 acres and the purchase price was $20,000. An adjacent tract, consisting of 146.8 acres, was donated by the citizens of Richmond. The acreage of this site was therefore 306.8 acres. The land was rather level but broken across the eastern end by a ravine with a small stream, and was located alongside of the Pennsylvania Railway. It was named “Easthaven” by Dr. Samuel E. Smith.
EASTERN INDIANA HOSPITAL FOR THE INSANE. (Now known as the Richmond State Hospital)
Easthaven, Near Richmond, Ind. Planned and constructed, 1883-1888. Temporarily occupied by School for Feeble-Minded Youth, 1888-1890. Opened for insane patients, August 1, 1890.
1890 Administration Building; 2010 Photos by Dan Tate.
This hospital, when opened for the admission of patients August 1, 1890, was one of the very few cottage hospitals in the country, and was probably in advance of others in the grouping of its classification into small diversified cottages. To be sure, it was small and far from complete as measured by the standard of to-day. It contained 390 beds for patients and its service building proved too small for even this number of inmates. It consisted of 17 structures arranged in and around the three sides of a quadrangle 1000 feet long and 700 feet wide. The third, or northern side, was closed by a grove of fine native trees, which later was made into a pleasant exercise park. Its southern side formed the front and in the center of this line of buildings was located the administration building, on either side of which was a detached cottage intended for infirmary purposes, one for men on the west, (cont. below)
1) An experience of more than 20 years as the medical superintendent of this hospital has convinced the writer that the cottage plan of construction for the treatment and care of the insane has most to commend it, and that it must grow in favor with future institutional construction. Small cottages in sufficient number to provide for nine classes, in sizes varying from 20 to 60 beds, and not more than two stories high, with ample porches on both floors, with day and night quarters entirely separated, without connecting covered corridors, except in the hospital group, with a central congregate dining room each for men and women, one general kitchen and with central heating and lighting systems with necessary conduit tunnels, will meet the highest requirements of such a hospital.
Not often is the opportunity vouchsafed to one after long years of experience in the development of one institution to be permitted to plan and supervise the construction of a new hospital along the lines of his own ideals, but the writer has been so honored and privileged lately by the confidence of his state and two of its chief executives, with the result, after three or four years of arduous labor, of a complete and fully equipped modern hospital known as the Southeastern Hospital for the Insane located at Madison. This will be described elsewhere.”Samuel Edwin Smith, M.S., M.D.
(cont. from above) and one for women on the east. In the rear of the administration building was the service building containing officers’ and employees’ quarters and dining rooms, general kitchen, bakery and cold store, and with an assembly hall on the second floor. In the rear were grouped the power house with its appurtenances and the laundry.
On the eastern side, located in a line and fronting the east, were five detached cottages for women patients, each with its own peculiar arrangement, external and internal. On the western side was a line of detached cottages for men patients, similar in most particulars to those constituting the department for women.
No covered corridors between the cottages were built. Shallow brick tunnels radiated from the power house to the groups of cottages, in which were carried the steam, water and electric lines. The water mains, however, were placed in trenches in the ground.
The classification contemplated six groups in either department of six cottages for the infirm and mild acute, convalescent, melancholies and suicidal, quiet chronic and working, epileptics, and violent and maniacal classes. These were located in ten wards, two cottages having two horizontal wards each, one cottage three vertical wards, and three cottages one vertical ward each. The wards varied from 10 to 40 beds each. Ten per of the capacity was assigned to the violent and maniacal group and 85 percentum was dormitory construction. Each ward had a dining room and each cottage a kitchen. The aim was a family group.
Richmond State Hospital, Administration Building; 2010 Photo.
The hospital was organized in 1890 and opened for the admission of patients August 1 of that year. The organization was dissolved by legislative action in March of the following year before all the cottages were occupied and a new board of trustees was selected. Samuel E. Smith, M. S., M. D., an assistant physician in the Northern Hospital since its opening, July, 1888, was made medical superintendent of the new hospital in April, 1891. He took charge May 15, 1801, and has remained in its continuous service to this day.
During the year 1891 all the beds were occupied and the test of actual service developed the weaknesses and inconveniences of plans and construction. These fortunately were not many, and most of them have been corrected by additional construction.
The most serious defect of plan was the individual kitchens with which each cottage was provided. Theoretically, a separate kitchen and dining room for each family group of patients is beautiful enough, but in practice the difficulties of supervision, the unnecessary waste from the numerous divisions of subsistence supplies, the lack of uniformity in the preparation of foods, the misapplication of the supplies by patients and attendants, the impossibility of maintaining a corps of competent cooks, the dangers from fire with the cooking utensils in proximity to all classes of patients, and constant presence of food and cooking odors throughout the cottages, rendered them impossible from an administrative point of view.
Therefore in 1895 a large general kitchen and two large dining halls, one for men and one for women, were built and put into service, and the individual kitchens and most of the dining rooms were abandoned and, in most instances, utilized for small dormitories. The dining rooms in wards for the actively disturbed, sick and infirm have been maintained and served by wagons. The advantages of the general kitchen and congregate dining halls are many and are well known. In this hospital as high as 73 percentum of the patient population has been comfortably and safely taken to and from these dining halls for their meals.
This large kitchen and the dining halls were built with sanitary floors and are well lighted, heated and ventilated. On the second floor of the structure is an assembly hall with a seating capacity of 600, and employees quarters, the men and women being segregated.
In 1898 a small detached kitchen and dining room were reconstructed for a few infirm patients on the first floor and the isolation of cases of tuberculosis on the second floor.
The single room capacity of about 15 percentum of the total capacity proved insufficient, and this deficiency was supplied by the construction of a single room cottage in each department, one in 1899 and one in 1902, at a total cost of $68,000. These increased the single room capacity to 29 percentum.
To meet another need not provided for in the original construction, two hospital cottages for sick were opened in 1900. These have a capacity of 30 beds each, with nurses’ quarters and office and quarters for a medical interne. The bath-rooms are sanitary and commodious. The dormitories are well lighted and ventilated and the porches are ample and convenient. Operating rooms are conveniently located and fairly well equipped. These two cottages cost $35,000 and proved of inestimable value in the care of the sick. A woman physician was first added to the medical staff in that year and located in the women’s hospital.
In 1907, at an outlay of $65,000, an infirmary cottage in each department with 40 beds was built. A special diet kitchen was erected at the same time and located between the infirmary and hospital cottage and connected with both by a covered corridor. These hospital groups have simplified and improved the nursing and care of the sick and infirm.
In the original construction only wooden floors were built in the bath-rooms, toilet rooms, sculleries and small dining rooms. These have all been removed and white vitreous tile and Venetian mosaic utilized.
The appurtenances have all been enlarged and improved from time to time to meet the needs of a growing population and later methods. The improvements include the power house, laundry, bakery, water system and tower and cold storage. The latter was built anew in 1899 and equipped with ice-making and refrigerating apparatus.
A sewerage purification plant was provided in 1903 at a cost of $15,000, which consists of a septic tank and four contact beds of gravel and sand enclosed with a concrete retaining wall. It automatically and satisfactorily oxidizes 85 percentum of the organic matter in 75,000 gallons of sewerage daily, and the effluent contains less organic matter than the brook into which it flows.
The grounds, a barren waste without tree, shrub or suggestion of a lawn in 1891, were carefully laid out and planted, and have developed in 20 years into a beautiful park, with exercise grounds in the rear and baseball grounds to the west.
The farm had some small additions made to it and has been well improved. A good dairy has been in operation many years. It now has a modern sanitary barn and a herd of 40 Holstein cattle. A brick stable and carriage house was built a few years ago, the farm houses all improved, and a sanitary piggery has been in service two years. The farm and gardens afford opportunity for the employment of many patients and supply, with the exception of potatoes, all the required vegetables.
Richmond State Hospital Auditorium; 2010 Photo.
The estate now consists of 323 acres, and hospital buildings, not including the farm appurtenances, number 30 brick structures. The total valuation of land, permanent improvements and personal property is $940,326.20.
The capacity is 830 beds, including certain small reservations in the hospital cottages for emergencies, and the daily average number present during the year 1912 was 794.
Since 1912 there has been added a new medical building for new laboratories, lecture-room and medical library, at a cost of $12,000; a new greenhouse at a cost of $5000; and a colony farm of 450 acres of fine land at a cost of $74,000.
2010 Photo; The front chimneys have been removed.
Architect’s drawing, c: 1887.
COMMISSIONERS.Governor Albert G. Porter Ex-officio president 1883-1885 Governor Isaac P. Gray Ex-officio president 1885-1889 Governor Alvin P. Hovey Ex-officio president 1889-1890 Joseph R. Gray 1883-1888 Eugene H. Bundy 1886-1890 DeForrest Skinner 1883-1889 E. P. Richardson 1888-1890 John C. Robinson 1883-1890 Josiah Gwin 1889-1890 William Grose 1883-1886 SECRETARIES. Frank H. Blackledge…. 1883-1885 William B. Roberts 1880-1890 Pierre Gray 1885-1889 Dr. Joseph G. Rogers Medical Engineer, 1893-1900 Ed. H. Ketcham, Archictect; 1883-1890 MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. George W. Koonts 1890-1891 Adam Heimberger 1902-1905 John S. Martin 1890-1891 Warren Bigler 1902-1905 Milton C. Benham 1890-1891 Thomas A. Jones 1903-1906 Montgomery Marsh 1891-1895 Carral K. McCollough.. 1905-1906 James J. Smiley 1891-1895 Joseph L. Cowing 1906- Silas W. Hale 1891-1902 John Detamore 1906- William D. Page 1895-1901 John W. Hanan 1906- E. Gurney Hill 1895-1900 Edward Barrett 1907-1910 Albert G. Ogborn 1900-1903 Meredith Nicholson 1910- John W. Macy 1901-1902
Edward F. Wells, M. D.. 1890-1891 Samuel E. Smith, M.S., M. D 1891
Source; The Institutional Care of the Insane; Henry M. Hurd, etal; Vol. 2; The John Hopkins Press; Baltimore, MD.; 1916.
Eastern Indiana Hospital For The Insane
This hospital is located at Easthaven, near Richmond. It was one of the three additional hospitals and was created by the Organic Act of 1883, and was opened for the admission of patients August 1, 1890, with Dr. Edward F. Wells in charge, who retired in less than one year. Dr. Samuel E. Smith, formerly assistant physician at the Northern Hospital, Logansport, was elected medical superintendent and assumed office May 15, 1891, and has filled this office to the present date, making the longest continuous service of a medical superintendent in the history of Indiana.
The capacity of the hospital is 896. This institution is built upon the well-known cottage plan, consisting of thirty-four small brick structures arranged in the form of a rectangle. The medical staff consists of a medical superintendent, three assistant physicians, one woman physician and a laboratory assistant. It is located on a farm consisting of 350 acres and two miles distant is a colony farm of 520 acres, on which are established three colony units.
The plan of the colonization of the insane in Indiana began in this institution and is being slowly elaborated. It is based upon the idea of giving helpful employment in the open air to the able-bodied patients in simple surroundings somewhat removed from the parent institution, but still under the direction of the medical superintendent. Source; Indiana & Indianans; Vol. 2.; Jacob Piatt Dunn; 1919.
HOSPITALS FOR THE INSANE. [Public Notice For Bids.] [Near Richmond and Evansville, Ind.]
Office Of The Board Of Commissioners, For The Erection Of Additional Hospitals For The Insane. Indianapolis, March 3, 1884.
Sealed proposals will be received by said Board of Commissioners at the office of the Governor, at Indianapolis, on the 8th day of April, 1884, between the hours of 10 o’clock A. M. and 11 o’clock A. M. (for the erection and construction of two additional hospitals for the insane, in conformity with plans and specifications agreed upon by said Board; one of said hospitals to be erected in Wayne County, near Richmond; the other in Vanderburg County, near Evansville).
Bids will be received for the work as a whole or for any classified portion, as shown in the schedule and specifications. All bids will be required to be made upon printed forms prepared by the Board of Commissioners, which will be furnished upon application. All bids must be accompanied by a bond for the faithful performance of the work specified therein, as required by section IV of the Act of the General Assembly of the State of Indiana, passed in 1883, entitled; An act providing for the location and erection of additional hospitals for the insane, and the management thereof, under the authority of which said hospitals are to erected.
The Board reserves the right to reject any and all bids. Contractors will not be allowed to sublet any portion of the work without the written approval of said Board.
Payments will be made monthly, as the work progresses, upon estimates made by the Superintendent of Construction, ten per cent of such estimate to be withheld until the final estimate, to be made when the contract is completed, and the work accepted by the Board.
The Board will not be responsible for the payment of any estimate, unless funds have been provided by appropriation by the Legislature.
Instructions To Bidders.
Plans and specifications can be seen on and after the 10th day of March, 1884, at the office of E. H. Ketcham, architect, Indianapolis, Ind.
Proposals must be endorsed “Proposals for new Asylum for the Insane,” and addressed to the “Commissioners for the erection of new Hospitals for the Insane, Indianapolis, Ind.” Bidders are invited to be present at the opening of the bids, which will take place at the office of the Governor on the 8th day of April, next. ” Special attention is called to terra-cotta and roof tile”.
“By order of said Board of Commissioners.”
A. G. PORTER, Governor and President of the Board.
Source; American Architect & Building News; January – June; 1884.
State of Indiana website for this hospital.
RICHMOND STATE HOSPITAL
498 NORTH WEST 18TH STREET
RICHMOND, IN 47374
1920 Industrial Building; 2010 Photo.
At least 10 copper covered cupolas adorn the peaks of the slate roof; 2010 Photo.
Upper View of structure; 2010 Photo.
The Entry Fountain; 2010 Photo.
2008-2009 AERIAL VIEWS
Aerial view, looking north.
Aerial view, looking west.
Aerial view, looking south.
A closer view.
Aerial view, looking east.
Richmond State Hospital Grounds; 2010. (Looking north).